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Home page > Research Topics > Trade Policy > Agriculture > World Water GAP

World Water GAP, A Global Approach Program


The UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education is an international institute for water education that was established in 2003 and that deals comprehensively with virtual water issues.

Calculate your own water foot print or discover the one of your country.

IWMI is a non-profit scientific organization funded by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). IWMI’s research agenda is organized around four priority themes covering key issues relating to land, water, livelihoods, health and environment. The Institute concentrates on water and related land management challenges faced by poor rural communities.

World Water Council was established in 1996 in response to increasing concern from the global community about world water issues. Its mission is to promote awareness, build political commitment and trigger action on critical water issues at all levels, including the highest decision-making level, to facilitate the efficient management and use of water in all its dimensions and on an environmentally sustainable basis.


De Fraiture, C., Cai, X., Amarasinghe, U., Rosegrant, M. & Molden, D. 2004. Does international cereal trade save water? The impact of virtual water trade on global water use. Comprehensive Assessment Research Report 4. International Water Management Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka.

Hoekstra, A.Y. and Hung, P.Q., 2002. Virtual water trade: a quantification of virtual water flows between nations in relation to international crop trade. Value of Water Research Report Series No.11, IHE, the Netherlands

Hoekstra, A.Y. & Chapagain, A.K. 2003. Virtual water flows between nations in relation to trade in livestocks Netherlands. Value of Water Research Report Series No.12, IHE, the Netherlands

Le Vernoy, Alexandre, "Water and Trade in Agriculture: Investigating Virtual Water Hypothesis in the Euro-Mediterranean Region", Policy brief. May 2006. English, Français.

Renault, D. & Zimmer, D. 2002. Virtual water in food production and global trade: review of methodological issues and primarily results. World Water Concil and FAO-AGLW

Rosegrant W., Cai X. & Cline S. 2002a. Global water outlook to 2025, adverting an impeding crisis. International Food Policy Research Institute Washington, D.C., U.S.A. International Water Management Institute Colombo, Sri Lanka.

Le Vernoy, Alexandre, "L’eau, une chance pour l’agriculture française: La libéralisation des échanges agricoles pourrait donner l’avantage aux pays utilisant plus parcimonieusement le précieux liquide", Le Monde, January 2006



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