About Us
Trade Policy
Trade / Development
Intellectual Property
Contingent Protection
WTO Negotiations
Regulatory Policy

Home page > Research Topics > Trade Policy > Agriculture > EBP Research Programme

« European Biofuels Policy » Research Programme (EBP)

Publications | Op-ed | Presentations | Statistical Resources


Global Subsidies Initiative
BIOFUELS - AT WHAT COST ? Government support for ethanol and biodiesel in the European Union
By Géraldine Kutas, Carina Lindberg and Ronald Steenblik
October 2007

This report was elaborated for the Global Subsidies Initiative (GSI) of the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD). It is one of a series of country studies dedicated to biofuel support policies. Written by Géraldine Kutas, Carina Lindberg and Ronald Steenblik, it examines the types and magnitude of support to biofuels in the European Union (EU). The rationale behind the very large sums of money being invested in support of this particular form of energy is questioned. In 2006, total transfers in support of biofuels associated with policies of the EU and the Member States reached around € 3.7 billion. The current policies are promoted as a way to decrease CO2 emissions but are an expensive and ineffective means to achieving that goal. The study concludes with several policy recommendations for the European Union and its Member States.

Revue Visages d’Amérique Latine
Ethanol boom in the US: an export opportunity for the Caribbean and Central American countries?
By Luiz Fernando do Amaral and Géraldine Kutas
September 2007

The United States (US) has engaged in a quest to substitute part of its oil dependency by renewable fuels. The production and consumption levels in the country have gone incredibly up. The projected installed capacity in the country is more than sufficient to meet its current consumption targets for 2012. However, if the US wants to advance further on its quest for oil substitution, some level of imports might be needed. Given the current tariff protection, the candidates to complement the US market are the countries with duty free access. CBI countries are among those. They are great sugar cane producers and, therefore, they have a potential to expand ethanol production. However, their export capacity is limited. Even in the very optimistic scenarios assumed in this article, they would not be able to export more than 1.6 billion liters, representing only 0.3 percent of the projected US gasoline consumption in 2012.

German Marshall Fund of the United States
EU and US Policies on Biofuels: Potential Impacts on Developing Countries
By M.S. Jank (coordinator), G.Kutas, A. M. Nassar and L.F do Amaral.
May 2007

This paper was commissioned by the German Marshall Fund of the United States and is part of the GMF Paper Series. The objective of the study is to analyze the impact of EU and US trade policies on biofuels production and export potential of different groups of developing countries that have engaged in the biofuels industry. Tropical and subtropical developing countries have a real comparative advantage in the production of feedstock for biofuels end-use, such as cane sugar and palm oil. Since the supply and demand of biofuels are not originating from the same place, in theory, there should be room for significant increases in international trade flows. However, the national policies enacted by the major biofuels consumers in the developed world might seriously reduce the export opportunities for developing countries.


« Le plan biocarburant dans le débat présidentiel : l’heure des vraies questions », by Emilie PONS. March, 16, 2007.


Géraldine KUTAS, “Biofuels in Europe and the United States: Energy, Economics, and Trade Aspect”. Conferences organized by the German Marshall Fund of the United States (GMF), May 24 and 25, 2007. Brussels and Berlin.

Géraldine KUTAS, "Biofuels in the EU: Towards a Green Revolution?" presented at the conference : "The biofuels boom : what can we learn from the Brazilian and American experiences?" , March 22, 2007 at Sciences Po.

Statistical resources

For statistical resources, click here


Home | Contact | Sitemap
GEM: 28, rue des Saints-Pères, 75007 Paris - France

Tél. +33(0)1 45 49 72 56 - Fax +33(0)1 45 49 72 57