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WTO Issues

WTO & Development

Europe and the World


Contingent Protection

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WTO Issues

Hallaert, Jean-Jacques, "Importing growth: the critical role of imports in a trade-led growth strategy", A GEM policy Brief, August 18, 2014.

Messerlin, Patrick A., "Accelerating Mega-FTA Negotiations and the World Trade Regime," Kokusai Mondai (International Affairs), No.632, June 2014. (Japanese).

Ahn Dukgeun, Messerlin, Patrick A., "United States – Anti-Dumping Measures on Certain Shrimp and Diamond Sawblades from China: never ending zeroing in the WTO?", World Trade Review, March 2014, pp 1 - 13. Available on CJO 2014 doi: 10.1017/S1474745614000020.

Messerlin, Patrick, "Openness in public procurement markets: A fair report of the results of the EU impact assessment", GEM Policy Brief, October 2012.

"The next decade of EU trade policy: confronting global challenges?" Research reports and studies, ODI and European Development and Cooperation Strengthening Programme, July 2012.

Willem te Velde, Dirk, "A different stance on trade will hit the poor hardest", EuropeanVoice.com, July 2012.

Bouët Antoine, "Le grand malentendu - L'idée de libre-échange en France", March 2012.

Messerlin, Patrick, Van Der Marel, Erik, "Polly wants a Doha deal: what does the trade community think?", World Trade Review, Vol. 10, Issue 4, pp 551; October 2011.

van der Marel, Erik, "Polly wants a Doha Deal: What Does the Trade Community Think?", GEM Policy Brief, June 7, 2011.

Chaisse, Julien, Chakraborty, Debashis, and Kumar, Animesh, "Analyzing the Disputes on Subsidy and Countervailing Measures Implications for the Current WTO Negotiations", GEM Policy Bief, January 2011.

Messerlin, Patrick, "The Doha round", GEM policy brief, October 2010.

Finger, J. Michael, "Administered protection in the GATT/WTO system", Policy Brief, July 30, 2010.

Hoekman, Bernard, Sekkat, Khalid, "Arab Economic Integration: The missing links", World Bank, CEPR, University of Brussels, ERF and GEM Working Paper, Revised version March 2010.

Cattaneo, Olivier, "Comment le G20 doit préparer la gouvernance mondiale du XXIe siècle", Les Echos, March 12, 2010.

Messerlin, Patrick A., "The trade agenda and the WTO after the Pittsburgh G20 Summit", GEM Policy Brief, October 2009.

Wolfe, Robert, "Sprinting during a Marathon: Why the WTO ministerial failed in July 2008", GEM Working paper, April 2009.

Wolfe, Robert, "The special safeguard fiasco in the WTO: The perils of inadequate analysis and negotiation", GEM Working paper, February 10, 2009.

Jomini, Patrick, Xiao-guang Zhang, Osborne, Michelle, "The Armington-Heckscher-Ohlin model - an intuitive exposition", GEM Working Paper, February 2009.

Pons, Emilie, "La certification durable des agrocarburants : compatibilité de la proposition européenne avec les règles de l’OMC", policy brief released in the "AGROCARBURANTS ET ENVIRONNEMENT" report from the French Ministère de l'Ecologie, de l'Energie, du Développement durable et de l'Aménagement du territoire, January 2009.

Achard, Pascal, Rupp, Judith and Jomini, Patrick, "The cost of water in manufacturing tariffs: A 30 products, 33 billion dollars cost story", GEM Working paper, November 17, 2008.

Messerlin, Patrick, "Walking a Tightrope: World Trade in Manufacturing and the Benefits of Binding", GMF-GEM Policy Brief, June 2008.

Fink, Carsten, "Preferential Trade Agreements in Services: Friends or Foes of the Multilateral Trading System?", GEM Discussion Paper, février 2008.

Messerlin, Patrick, "The Doha Round: Where do we stand?" GEM Working Paper, October 2007.

MacInnis, Laura, "WTO deal could touch half of world industry imports", NewsEdge, October 18, 2007.

Messerlin, Patrick, "Assessing the EC Trade Policy in Goods", Jan Tumlir Policy Essays, ECIPE, April 2007.

Messerlin, Patrick, "The Doha Negotiations on Trade in Goods: At a Crossroads", Working Paper, March 2007, WP2007-04.

Messerlin, Patrick, "How Much Further Can the WTO Go? Developed Countries Issues", Working Paper, January 2007, WP2007-03.

Kang, Yoo-Duk, "WTO/DDA negotiation and Korea’s Agricultural Policy: Case of rice" (Korean version, English version), GEM Working Paper, Draft version, November 2006. All comments and remarks welcome.

Messerlin, Patrick, "Doha darf nicht an Europa scheitern", Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, July 18, 2006.

Messerlin, Patrick, "Tariff rebalancing helps both Europe and Doha"", The Financial Times, June 26, 2006.

Messerlin, Patrick, "L'Europe saborde-t-elle le cycle de Doha ?", Les Echos, June 26 2006.

Messerlin, Patrick, "The Doha Negotiations on Trade in Goods: A European Perspective", June 2006.

Shepherd, Ben, "Costs and Benefits of Protecting Geographical Indications: Some Lessons from the French Wine Sector", GEM Working Paper, May 2006.

Heydon, Ken, "After the WTO Hong Kong Ministerial Meeting: What is at stake?", OECD, January 2006.

Hoekman, Bernard, Bown, Chad P., "WTO Dispute Settlement and the Missing Developing Country Cases: Engaging the Private Sector", May 2005.

Levy, Philip I., "Do we need an undertaker for the Single Undertaking? Considering the angles of variable geometry", May 2005.

Hoekman, Bernard, Saggi, Kamal, "International Cooperation on Domestic Policies: Lessons from the WTO Competition Policy Debate", April 2005.

Messerlin, Patrick, "Three variations on 'The Future on the WTO'", Journal of International Law 8(2) p. 299-309, April 2005.

Cattaneo, Olivier, “La Conférence ministérielle de Cancun: Enjeux et perspectives pour le développement”, AFD/IFRI, Paris, September 2003, 9p.

Cattaneo, Olivier, “Comprendre le cycle de négociations commerciales multilatérales de Doha: son contexte, ses enjeux, ses perspectives”, CERI, Notes du CERI, n° 92, December 2002, 35p.


WTO & Development

Hallaert, Jean-Jacques, "Revamping the Aid for Trade Initiative: Why is it necessary? What can be done?", in GREAT Insights, Volume 2, Issue 5, Juillet-Aout 2013.

Hallaert, Jean-Jacques, "The future of Aid for Trade: challenges and options", World Trade Review, April 2013, pp 1 16.

Hallaert, Jean-Jacques, "Aid for Trade: Chronicle of a WTO Attempt at Coherence", GEM Policy Brief, October 2012, revised November 5.

Hallaert, Jean-Jacques, "Why boosting the availability of trade became a priority during the 2008-09 crisis", in Trade Finance under the Great Trade Collapse, pp245-255, The World Bank, 2011.

Chauffour, Jean-Pierre, et Maur, Jean-Christophe, "Beyond Market Access: The New Normal of Preferential Trade Agreements", Policy Research Working Paper, Banque Mondiale, Octobre 2010.

Hallaert, Jean-Jacques, "Boosting the availability of Trade Finance: A priority in the current Crisis?" Intereconomics; Sep2009, Vol. 44 Issue 5, p264-293.

Shepherd, Ben, "Geographical Diversification of Developing Country Exports", Working paper, October 2008.

Shepherd, Ben, "Product Standards, Harmonization, and Trade: Evidence from the Extensive Margin", Working Paper September, 2008.

Fugazza, Marco and Maur, Jean-Christophe, "Non Tariff Barriers in Computable General Equilibrium Modelling" (September 23, 2006). Available at SSRN.

Dennis, Allen, and Ben Shepherd, 2007, "Trade Costs, Barriers to Entry, and Export Diversification in Developing Countries", Policy Research Working Paper No. 4368, The World Bank. (September 2007.)

Helble, Matthias, Ben Shepherd, and John S. Wilson, "Transparency and Trade Facilitation in the Asia-Pacific: Estimating the Gains from Reform",Washington, D.C.: The World Bank & DFAT, 2007.

Shepherd, Ben, and John S. Wilson, 2006, "Road Infrastructure in Europe and Central Asia: Does Network Quality Affect Trade?", Policy Research Working Paper No. 4104, The World Bank.

Maur, Jean-Christophe, "Coping with trade liberalisation adjustments", policy brief, GEM, December 2006.

Kowalski Przemyslaw and Ben Shepherd : "South South Trade in Goods", OECD Trade Policy Working Paper No. 40, 16 October 2006.

Dihel Nora, Felix Eschenbach and Ben Shepherd : "South South Trade in Services", OECD Trade Policy Working Paper No. 39, 17 October 2006.

Hallaert, Jean-Jacques, "Trade and Growth", released in "A History of Empirical Literature on the Relationship Between Trade and Growth", Mondes en developpement, De Boeck, Tome 34, 2006.

Hoekman, Bernard, "Strengthening the Global Trade Architecture for Economic Development: An Agenda for Action", September 2005.

Hoekman, Bernard, Prowse, Susan, "Economic Policy Responses to Preference Erosion: From Trade as Aid to Aid for Trade", August 2005.

Francois, Joe, Hoekman, Bernard, Anchin, M. "Preference Erosion and Multilateral Trade Liberalization", July 2005.

Hoekman, Bernard, "Making the WTO More Supportive of Development", March 2005.

Hoekman, , Bernard, "Operationalizing the Concept of Policy Space in the WTO: Beyond Special and Differential Treatment", October 2004.

Europe and the World

Messerlin, Patrick A., "The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership: The Services Dimension", Paper No. 6 in the CEPS-CTR project "TTIP in the Balance'' and CEPS Special Report No. 106 / May 2015.

Basedow, Robert, "La réforme de la protection d' investissements sous le PTCI et l'AECG", policy brief, January 14, 2015.

Messerlin, Patrick A., "The Japan-EU Negotiations on Railway", A GEM policy Brief, April 12, 2014.

Messerlin, Patrick A., "The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership and the Developing Countries", a GEM policy brief, May 22, 2014.

Messerlin, Patrick A., "Negotiating Mega-Agreements: Lessons from the EU", a GEM policy brief, May 8, 2014.

Messerlin, Patrick A., "L'Union européenne, la France et leurs partenaires d'Asie Pacifique", a GEM policy brief, April 16, 2014.

Buege, Max, Messerlin, Patrick A., "Le Partenariat Transatlantique de Commerce et d'Investissement à l'ère des 'méga-zones de libre-échange'", Policy Brief, January 2014. Executive Summary in English and German.

Messerlin, Patrick A., "East Asia and the EU: Which Contribution to the World Trade System?", Policy Brief presented at the Second East Asia-EU Round Table, January 29, 2014.

Messerlin, Patrick A., Hong Seung Pyo, "North Korea's Trade Policy: Constraints and Available Options". Policy Brief, January 29, 2014 (revised version of "Trade Policy as Trust Building in the Korean Peninsula", released September 28, 2013).

Messerlin, Patrick A., "The Domestic Political Economy of Preferential Trade Agreements" in , EU Preferential Trade Agreements: Commerce, Foreign Policy, and Development Aspects, edited by David Kleimann, European University Institute, pp25-42, July 2013.

Messerlin, Patrick A., "The Much Needed EU Pivoting to East Asia", Asia-Pacific Journal of EU Studies Vol. 10 No. 2, Winter 2012.

Messerlin, Patrick A., "The EU Pivoting to East Asia", GEM Policy Brief, November 2012.

Messerlin, Patrick, Miroudot, Sébastien, "EU public procurement markets: How open are they?", a GEM policy brief, July 18, 2012.

Messerlin, Patrick A., "Le TPP et la politique européenne en Asie de l'Est (Chine exclue)", Asia Centre, Ministère des Affaires Etrangères, mai 2012.

Messerlin, Patrick A., "The TPP and the EU policy in East Asia (China Mainland excluded)", Asia Centre, Ministère des Affaires Etrangères, mai 2012.

Messerlin, Patrick A., "An EU development-friendly trade policy under a "Comatose Doha"", European Parliament, Directorate-General for External Policies, Policy Department, April 6, 2012.

Messerlin, Patrick A., "The EU Preferential Trade Agreements: Defining Priorities for a Debt-Ridden, Growth-Starving EU", GEM Working Paper, January 30, 2012. (French version).

Messerlin, Patrick, "Climate and trade policies: from mutual destruction to mutual support", World Trade Review, Cambridge Journals Online, January 2012.

Kleen, Peter, "Border carbon adjustments: A real threat or a storm in a teacup?", GEM Policy Brief, February 2011.

Messerlin, Patrick, Emerson, Michael, Jandieri, Gia, le Vernoy, Alexandre, “An appraisal of the EU’s trade policy towards its Eastern neighbours: The case of Georgia”, a GEM – CEPS study, March 2011.

Messerlin, Patrick, Emerson, Michael, Jandieri, Gia, le Vernoy, Alexandre, "Time for change: EU trade policy towards the Eastern Partners (case of Georgia), a GEM, CEPS and New Economic School-Georgia Policy Brief, 28 February 2011.

Bark, Taeho, and Rhee, Yeongseop, "The G20: from Seoul to Paris and beyond", GEM Policy Brief, November 2010.

Moon, Woosik, "Whither economic integration in East Asia?", GEM Policy Brief, October 2010.

Ahn, Dukgeun, "Legal and Institutional Issues of Korea-EU FTA: New Model for Post-NAFTA FTAs?", GEM Policy Brief, October 2010.

Hillman, Jennifer, and Kleimann, David, "Trading Places: The New Dynamics of EU : Trade Policy under the Treaty of Lisbon", GMF, Economic POlicy Paper Series 2010, October 2010.

Messerlin, Patrick A., "New challenging issues for world trade and the world economy Strategies for the EC-Turkey Custom Union", GEM Policy Brief, July 2010.

Messerlin, Patrick A., "The European Community commercial policy", GEM Working Paper, June 2010.

Messerlin, Patrick A., "Climate change and trade policy: From mutual destruction to mutual support", GEM Working Paper and World Bank Working Paper Series No. 5378, April 2010.

Messerlin, Patrick, "How the rich OECD nations should handle the emerging giants", Europe's world, Spring 2010. (Article selected by Project Syndicate).

Welfens, Paul J.J., "Intégration Européenne et Mondialisation: Défis, Débats, Options", European Institute for International Economic Relations (EIIW) at the University of Wuppertal, March 2008.

Messerlin, Patrick and Jinghui Wang, "The EU Trade Policy Towards China", GEM Policy Brief, February 2008. (Chinese version).

Messerlin, Patrick and Jinghui Wang, "Redesigning the European Union’s trade policy strategy towards China", Joint ECIPE-GEM Working Paper, April 2008.

Maur, Jean-Christophe, "Exporting Europe's Trade Policy", Blackwell Synergy, World Economy, Vol 28, page 1565, November 2005.

Messerlin, Patrick, "A European Economic Agenda After the NO Votes", Wincott Lecture, October 2005.

Hoekman, Bernard, "From EURO-MED Partnership to European Neighborhood: Deeper Integration à la Carte and Economic Development", Working Paper, July 2005.

Durieux, Bruno, Messerlin, Patrick, Relations commerciales France/Etats-Unis: "L'Amérique telle qu'elle est", Editions d'Organisation, 2003.

Messerlin, Patrick, "Measuring the Costs of Protection in Europe", Institute for International Economics, 2001. Article released in Foreign Affairs, March/April 2002.

Henderson, David, "L'accord multilatéral sur l'investissement: leçons d'un échec", mai 1999.



Hallaert, Jean-Jacques, "Aid for Trade is reaching its limits, so what's next?", GEM Working Paper, June 14, 2012.

Gultekin Punsmann, Burcu, "Paving the Way for Turkish-Armenian Reconciliation: A Personal Account", Friedrich Ebert Stiftung Turkey Analyses, May 2013. (English - Turkish).

Messerlin, Patrick A., "Korean Hallyu in trade policy" A GEM Policy Brief, March 11, 2012. (Revised April 17, 2012).

Jouanjean, Marie-Agnès, "Standards, Reputation and Trade: Evidence from US Horticultural Import Refusals", LICOS Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance – K.U.Leuven & GEM Working Paper, January 2012.

Modwel, Suman, and Singh, Surendra, "The EU-India FTA Negotiations: Leading to an Agreement or Disagreement?", GEM Policy Brief, January 30, 2012.

Jouanjean, Marie-Agnès, Maur, Jean-Christophe and Ben Shepherd, "Reputation Matters: Spillover Effects in the Enforcement of US SPS Measures" Working Paper, December 7, 2011.

Delpeuch, Claire, Leblois, Antoine, "The Elusive Quest for Supply Response to Cash-crop Market Reforms in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Case of Cotton", Policy Research Working Paper 5861, The World Bank, Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Network, International Trade Department, October 2011.

Delpeuch, Claire, Messerlin, Patrick, "Aid for Trade effectiveness: What do evaluations say?", Trade Negotiation Insights, Issue 7, Vol. 10, pp15-16, October 2011. (Version française).

Delpeuch, Claire, "African Cotton Markets at Crossroads Will the Price Spike Turn into a New Kick-Start?", Working Paper, The World Bank, October 2011.

Cattaneo, Olivier, Hoekman, Bernard and Jackson, Selina, (with contributions from Liliana Foletti, Alexandre le Vernoy and Gavin Yerxa) "The role of international business in Aid for Trade: Building capacity for trade in developing countries", The World Bank, July 2011.

Delpeuch, Claire, Jouanjean, Marie-Agnès, Le Vernoy, Alexandre, Messerlin, Patrick, Orliac, Thomas, "Aid for Trade: A Meta-evaluation", OECD working paper, September 2011. Final report.

Delpeuch, Claire, Anneleen Vandeplas and Johan F.M. Swinnen, "Revisiting the “cotton problem”: A comparative analysis of cotton reforms in sub-Saharan Africa", LICOS Discussion Paper 290/2011, August 2011.

Allegrini, Mark, Guinan, Joe, "Hungry for Democracy, and Just Plain Hungry", a GMF article, 28 February 2011.

Delpeuch, Claire, and Leblois, Antoine, "Sub-saharan african cotton policies in retrospect", GEM-CIRED Working Paper, January 2011.

Kohler, Philippe, "Foreign direct investment in countries with weak institutions", GEM Policy Brief, March 2010.

Delpeuch, Claire, "A short analytical history of cotton institutions in West Africa", GEM Working Paper, November 2009.

Hallaert, Jean-Jacques, "Fiscal revenue losses and trade diversion from the economic partnership agreements: Are the concerns justified?", GEM Working Paper, June 2009.

Hallaert, Jean-Jacques, "Proliferation of preferential trade agreements: A quantification of its impact", GEM Working Paper, February 2008.

Messerlin Patrick and Claire Delpeuch, "EPAs: A Plan ‘A+’", GEM Working Paper, November 2007. French version available: "Sortir de l’impasse des APE : Pour une initiative des pays ACP a l’OMC", février 2008.

Delpeuch, Claire and Georges Harb, "Epas: thinking outside the European box", GEM Working Paper, Revised version, December 2007.

Delpeuch, Claire, "One minute to midnight: Is there still time to rethink EPAs?", GMF Policy Brief, October 2007.

Maur, Jean-Christophe, "Regionalism and Trade Facilitation: A Primer", March 23, 2007. Available at SSRN.

Hoekman, Bernard, Özden, Çaglar, "Trade Preferences and Differential Treatment of Developing Countries", 2005.

Limão, Nuno, Olarreaga, Marcelo, "Trade Preferences to Small Developing Countries and the Welfare Costs of Lost Multilateral Liberalization", 2005.

Bernard Hoekman, "Designing North South Trade Agreements to Promote Economic Development", June 2005.

Olarreaga, Marcelo, Ozden, Caglar, "AGOA and Apparel: Who Captures the Tariff Rent in the Presence of Preferential Market Access?", Abstract, August 2004.

Messerlin, Patrick, Miroudot, Sébastien, "Trade Liberalization in South East Europe: Review of Conformity of 23 FTAs with the MoU", January 2004. (Paper)


Contingent Protection

Messerlin, Patrick A. "A “significant slippage” in protectionism? Not yet", GEM policy brief, 12 May 2009.

Messerlin, Patrick, "Need for Coherence Among the WTO’s Escape Clauses", released in "China's Participation in the WTO", edited by Henry Gao and Donald Lewis, 2005.

Kohler, Philippe, Moore, Michael O.,"Domestic welfare effects of foreign strategic trade policies", Journal of Economic Integration, 2003, Vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 573–586.

Kohler, Philippe, Moore, Michael O., "Injury-based protection with auditing under asymmetric information", Southern Economic Journal, 2001, Vol. 68, No. 1, pp. 42–59.

Maur, Jean-Christophe, "Antidumping in supercomputers or surpercomputing in antidumping?", septembre 1999.

Maur, Jean-Christophe, "Echoing Antidumping Cases: Regulatory Competitors, Imitation and Cascading Protection", septembre 1998. (Publié sous une forme légèrement modifiée dans World Competition, vol.21, n°6, décembre 1998.)

Kohler, Philippe, Moore, Michael O., "Design of an antidumping rule with incomplete information about material injury", Journal of Economic Integration, 1998, Vol. 13, No 1, pp.62-88.



Cattaneo, Olivier, Marniesse, Sarah, "Le Cambodge, de l’ère des quotas textiles au libre échange", Agence Française de Développement, October 2004.

Cattaneo, Olivier, “2005, The Big Bang for Trade in Textiles and Clothing”, Evian Group Issue of the Month, October 2004.



Messerlin, Patrick A., "La Francophonie économique : Que peut-elle faire, que devrait-elle faire ?", a GEM Working Paper, October 2014.

Messerlin, Patrick A., Shin, Wonkyu, "The K-pop Wave: An Economic Analysis", a GSIS Seoul National University - Sciences Po policy brief, July 1st, 2013. Revised version October 6, 2013.

Bertho, Fabien, "A Liner Shipping Services Trade Restrictiveness Index (STRI) for Asia Pacific Economies", GEM Working Paper, January 2013.

van der Marel, Erik (London School of Economics), Miroudot, Sébastien (OECD), "The Economics and Political Economy of Going beyond the GATS" Working Paper, August 8, 2012.

van der Marel, Erik (LSE), Dreyer, Iana (Institut Montaigne), "Beyond Dutch Disease: When Deteriorating Rule of Law affects Russian Trade in High-Tech Goods and Services with Advanced Economies", Working Paper, July 2012.

Messerlin, Patrick A., van der Marel, Erik, "The Dynamics of Transatlantic Negotiations in Services", GMF Economic Policy Paper Series 2012, February 21, 2012. (Update version from a 2009 GEM working paper).

Erixon, Fredrik , van der Marel, Erik, "What is driving the rise in health care expenditures? An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Cost Disease", ECIPE-GEM Working Paper, December 2011.

Miroudot, Sébastien, Sauvage, Jehan and Ben Shepherd, "Trade Costs and Productivity in Services Sectors", Policy Brief, July 25, 2011.

van der Marel, Erik, "Determinants of Comparative Advantage in Services", GEM Working Paper, 20 March 2011.

van der Marel, Erik, "Trade in Services and TFP: The Role of Regulation", GEM Working Paper, February 2011.

Sébastien Miroudot, Jehan Sauvage and Ben Shepherd, : "Lowering trade costs in services markets: The final frontier?", voxEU voxEU.org, January 17, 2011.

Engman Michael, "A tale of three markets: How government policy creates winners and losers in the Philippine health sector", GEM working Paper, October 2010.

Shepherd, Ben, and Van Der Marel, Erik, "Trade in Services in the APEC Region: Patterns, Determinants, and Policy Implication", APEC Policy Support Unit, October 2010.

Miroudot, Sébastien, Sauvage, Jehan, and Shepherd, Ben, "Measuring the Cost of International Trade in Services", GEM Working Paper, October 2010.

Bertho, Fabien, "Preferential Agreements in Maritime Transport: The current and the outdated", GEM Working Paper, June 2010.

Geloso Grosso, Massimo, "The political economy of liberalising air transport in APEC: Regulatory aspects and negotiating options". GEM Working Paper, June 2010.

Tsai, Charles, "Regulatory reform in China’s health sector", GEM Policy Brief, February 2010.

Geloso Grosso, Massimo, Shepherd, Ben, "Liberalising air cargo services in APEC" , GEM Working Paper, October 2009.

Engman, Michael, "Half a century of exporting educational services: Assessing Egypt’s role in educating the Arab world", GEM Working Paper, October 2009.

Engman, Michael, "Circular labour migration and offshoring of it services: What can be done to remove unnecessary trade barriers?", GEM Working Paper, September 2009.

Shepherd, Ben, Miroudot, Sébastien, "Leveraging Trade in Services to Consolidate Global Economic Recovery: An Agenda for the G-20", GEM Policy Brief, September 2009.

Messerlin, Patrick A., van der Marel, Erik, "“Leading with services” The dynamics of transatlantic negotiations in services", GEM policy Brief, June 2009.

Fink, Carsten, "Has the EU's Single Market Program led to Deeper Integration of EU Services Markets?", GEM Working Paper, July 2009.

Jomini, Patrick, Achard, Pascal, Rupp, Judith, "The Istanbul Declaration and the Agenda for Freedom Summit – an opportunity for broad liberalisation", GEM Working paper, February 2009.

Geloso Grosso, Massimo, "Liberalising Air Cargo Services In Apec", GEM Working Paper, December 2008.

Geloso Grosso, Massimo, "Liberalising Air Passenger Services In Apec", GEM Working Paper, November 2008.

Geloso Grosso, Massimo, "Liberalising air transport services in APEC", GEM Working Paper, April 2008.

Shepherd, Ben, Nora Dihel, "Modal Estimates of Services Barriers", OECD Trade Policy Working Paper No. 51, April 2007.

Eschenbach, Felix, Hoekman, Bernard, "Services Trade and Investment in Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union" in "From Disintegration to Reintegration: Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union in International Trade", The World Bank Europe and Central Asia (ECA) Department, 2006.

Wunsch-Vincent, Sacha, "L’OMC face à la délocalisation des services: prévenir le protectionnisme", La vie économique, September 2005.

Cattaneo, Olivier, Nielson, Julia, "Regulation of Services Traded Electronically", OECD, October 2002, 37p.

Cattaneo, Olivier, Nielson, Julia, "Current Regimes for Temporary Movement of Service Providers. Case study: the United States", OECD, May 2002, 24 & 34p.

Cattaneo, Olivier, "The Economic Impact of the Temporary Movement of Service Providers under Mode 4 of the GATS", OECD, Paris, 2002, 40p.


Intellectual Property

Biadgleng, E. T., Maur, J.-C., "The Influence of Preferential Trade Agreements on the Implementation of Intellectual Property Rights in Developing Countries: A First Look", International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD), November 2011.

Lippoldt, Douglas, "Do Stronger IPRs Deliver the Goods (and Services) in Developing Countries?", International Policy Network Briefing Paper, October 2010.

Lippoldt, Douglas, "Institutions and intellectual property reform in developing countries", GEM Policy Brief, April 2008.

Lippoldt, Douglas, "Intellectual Property Rights, Pharmaceuticals And Foreign Direct Investment", GEM Policy Bief, November 2006.


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